Fireworks impacts on air quality in Metro Manila, Philippines during the 2019 New Year revelry

Genevieve Rose H. Lorenzo, Rachel A. Braun1, Eva-Lou Edwards1, Connor Stahl1, Mojtaba Azadi Aghdam1, Andrea Corral1, Paola Angela Bañaga2, Grace Betito2, Gabrielle Leung2, Shane Marie Visaga2, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza2, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz2, Alexander B. MacDonald1, Ilya Razencov3, Ed Eloranta3, Robert Holz3, James Bernard Simpas2, and Armin Sorooshian
Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences
The University of Arizona

Fireworks degrade air quality, reduce visibility, alter atmospheric chemistry and cause short-term health effects. Novel and intensive measurements of chemical, physical and optical properties of particulate matter from fireworks during New Year 2019 in Manila Observatory, Quezon City, Philippines was done through the Cloud, Aerosol and Monsoon Processes Philippines Experiment (CAMP2Ex). Forty-eight hour particulate samples were collected with Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactors (MOUDI) samplers before, during, and after the fireworks activities. Ionic and elemental analyses of the particulate samples were done using ion chromatography and triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, respectively. Backscatter and aerosol optical depth measurements were retrieved from a High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). Species specific to firework activity (Cu, Ba, Sr, K, Al, Pb, and Mg2+) were enriched 5 to 65 times in the accumulation mode during the fireworks event. Multiple water-soluble ions such asSO42-, NO3-, Cl-, and Ca2+ were also elevated in the accumulation mode due to primary and secondary emissions. Heavy surface aerosol loading associated with aerosol optical depth reaching 1.25was observed at the peak of the fireworks event. Fireworks emissions were detected in MERRA-2 reanalysis estimations of surface PM2.5, and can help resolve the gaps between satellite and surface data. 

1Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
2Manila Observatory, Philippines 3Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin -Madison